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Optical Passive Components

      Passive Optical Network



一、WDM Optical Network

WDM Optical Network is a technology multiplexing a number of optical carrier signals into a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths of laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber, as well as multiplication of capacity. Infiberone supplies a complete series of WDM Optical Network Solutions, such as multiplexers, splitters, amplifiers, attenuators and other passive optical components. 



1.       CWDM TOPOLOGY




2.       Characteristics of CWDM:




ITU-T G.694.2 CWDM Grid:

Nominal Central Wavelengths: 1271nm, 1291nm,……1611nm, 18 wavelengths in total.



3.       Network element Parameters:




二、 DWDM Network:



2.       Optical Bands


3、     Channel Spacing:




4.       Crosstalk:



Crosstalk occurs in devices that filter and separate wavelengths. A proportion of optical power intended for a specific channel is found in an adjacent or different channel.

Effect: Generation of additional noise affecting optical signal to noise ratios (OSNR), leading to bit errors.

Solutions: use appropriate optical channel spacing, for example 0.4nm……10Gbps.


5、   FWX/Four wave mixing:



This interference phenomenon produces unwanted signals from three frequencies (fxyz=fx+fy-fz) known as ghost channels. As three channels automatically induce a fourth, the terms four wave mixing is used. FWM is problematic in systems using dispersion-shifted fibers (DSF). Wavelengths travelling at the same speed at a constant phase over long periods increase the effect of FWM.

Effects: Power transfer to new signal frequencies (harmonics), channel crosstalk, and bit errors.

Solutions: use of fibers or modules with reverse CD values (DCF/DCM)

6.       Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)





PMD refers to the effect when different polarization modes (fast axis and slow axis)of a signal statistically travel at different velocities due to fiber imperfections. The time difference is called Differential Group Delay (DGD).

Effects : decrease of peak power, distortion of pulse shape, and bit errors.

Solutions: Lay fiber carefully ( No stress), use new fiber with low PDM values, exact fiber geometry.


三、 FTTX Solutions:

Infiberone can provide various kinds of PLC splitters to be used for PON/FTTx solutions, like LGX/MINI/BOX/BARE FIBER/1RU RACK/WALL-MOUNTED/TRAY TYPE etc.





四.Optical Protection System:

1.       1:1 Optical Line protection:





2.       1+1 OLP:




3.       Optical Bypass Protection:







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